Current Common Sense Today: Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

According to the latest data, the IMR in India declined by 58% during the period 1990-2015 which is more than the global decline of 49% in the same period. Full immunization coverage also increased from 43.5% in 2005 to 62.0% in 2015, and the TB mortality rate dropped from 76 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 32 per 100,000 in 2015.

The steps that the government is taking to combat infant mortality and increase vaccine coverage under the National Health Mission are as follows:

(1) Promoting institutional delivery through cash incentives under the Maternal Protection Scheme (JSY) and Maternal Child Protection Program (JSSK) which gives all pregnant women delivered to public health facilities the right to delivery, including free prenatal check-ups, caesarean section. Postpartum care and treatment of sick children up to one year of age.

(2) Strengthen delivery points to provide comprehensive and quality reproductive, maternal, neonatal, child and adolescent health (RMNCH + A) services, ensure necessary neonatal care at all delivery points, establish special neonatal care units (SNCUs),

Neonatal Stabilization Unit (NBSU) and Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) Unit for the care of sick and young children. Home Based Neonatal Care (HBNC) is being provided by ASHA to improve child rearing habits. The India Newborn Action Plan (INAP) was launched in 2014 in a concerted effort to achieve the goals of “Single Digit Neonatal Mortality Rate” and “Single Digit Stillbirth Rate” by 2030.

(3) Early Initiation and Exclusive Breastfeeding and Suitable Infant and Breastfeeding (IYCF) practices for the first six months are promoted jointly with the Ministry of Women and Child Development. Rural Health and Nutrition Day (VHNDs) is observed to provide maternal and child health services and to raise awareness about maternal and child care, including health and nutrition education. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched the MAA-Mother Absorption Program in August 2016 to improve breastfeeding practices (early breastfeeding within one hour, exclusive breastfeeding for six months and complementary breastfeeding for up to two years) through media and health capacity building. Providers of health care as well as care in communities.

(4) The Universal Immunization Program (UIP) is being supported to vaccinate children against many deadly diseases such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, polio, tetanus, hepatitis B and measles. The pentavalent vaccine has been introduced across the country and “Mission Rainbow” has been introduced to fully vaccinate all children who have either not been vaccinated or have been partially vaccinated; Which for various reasons were not covered in the routine immunization rounds Measles and rubella campaigns are being launched in selected states for children aged 9 months to 15 years to eradicate measles by 2020.

(5) Mother and child name based tracking (mother and child tracking system) up to the age of two years is done to ensure complete prenatal, antenatal, postnatal care and complete immunization as per schedule.

(6) The State Child Health Program (RBSK) for health screening, developmental delays and early intervention services, including birth defects, diseases, deficiencies, has been introduced to provide comprehensive care to all children aged 0 years. 18 years in the community.

(7) Some other important interventions include supplementation of iron and folic acid (IFA) to prevent anemia in the weaker age groups, home visits by ASHAs to promote exclusive breastfeeding, and promotion of the use of ORS and zinc in managing diarrhea in children.

(8) Capacity building of healthcare providers: Various trainings are being conducted under the National Health Mission (NHM) to build and improve the skills of healthcare providers in basic and comprehensive maternity care of mothers in pregnancy, childbirth and essential neonatal care.

(9) Low performance districts have been identified as High Priority Districts (HPDs) which gives them the right to be encouraged to take innovative approaches to their per capita funding, relaxed rules, enhanced monitoring and focused support supervision and to address their unique health challenges.

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