There has been a growing body of scientific evidence over the last 10 years that a certain type of computerized cognitive training (CCT) has the potential to significantly increase IQ – e.g. Work memory training. Commercial CCT comes in many forms. Many brain training companies divide training into different types of cognitive processing such as speed, memory, attention, etc. In light of all the studies that have been done on this variety of training, it is only memory training that has shown the real potential for intelligence growth.
What is working memory?
Votxtvotx It can be thought of as our ‘mental workplace’. Imagine for a second you were transposed into the karmic driven world of Earl. Imagine for a second you were transposed into the karmic driven world of Earl.
More formally, working memory is a short-term memory and management system that
“Provides temporary storage and manipulation of information needed for complex cognitive tasks such as language comprehension, learning and reasoning.” Badley, 2003, p. 189
People have different work memories Power – The amount of such information they can maintain and process. Working memory capacity is highly correlated with IQ.
This is understandable, because you can imagine that more intelligent people have a larger mental ‘workspace’ and are able to make relatively more connections and guesses using this vast workspace.
Dual n-back training
In 2008, Suzanne M. Jayegi and colleagues published an original research paper Massive transfer 20 days computerized working memory training for intelligence. ‘Wide transfer’ means that training not only improves the game but also improves general cognitive ability and IQ test performance. This paper has generated a great deal of interest in the possibility of training the brain to improve intelligence.
Working memory exercises are used in Jaeggi Dual N-back – which is now the most widely studied computerized cognitive training game. This involves looking at a continuous flow of items such as moving squares and determining whether the position of each square matches the position ‘n’ stimulus in time. Memory ‘gap’ is ‘n-back level’. If you want to keep track of the position 2 goes backwards, then you are at the 2-back level. If you are tracking position 3 backwards – then you are at 3-back level. Here you can see a 2-back example:
Inside Dual n-back training, an oral and a visual stream of items are presented both At the same time Shown below for a 2-back game:
How effective is dual n-back training?
Jayegi and his colleagues published their dual N-back study in 2008. Since then numerous studies have been published exploring the effects of dual n-back training on cognitive performance, and there has been a heated debate between both cognitive scientists and the popular media. Cognitive training revolves around the idea that IQ can increase.
Some studies have failed to replicate the effects of IQ-boosting training – such as this study by a team led by Todd Thompson of MIT’s Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences:
“[our] The results fail to support the notion that adaptive work memory training in healthy young adults enhances work memory in untrained work, fluid intelligence, or other systems of cognitive ability. ” (2013)
But many other studies have found significant IQ-enhancing effects, such as Sarah Rudebeck of the Department of Experimental Psychology at Oxford University:
“We found that trainers, compared to non-trainers, showed a significant improvement in fluid intelligence after 20 days. Our research shows that the practice of a… working memory task … can potentially improve both memory and fluid intelligence.“(2012)
So how do we evaluate conflicting evidence? Does dual n-back training work?
To answer this question, we need to distinguish between different grades of evidence.
- ‘In-house’ research CConference discussions, papers ‘under review’ and other unpublished material. (E.g. Lumos Labs Unpublished documents.)
- Single peer-reviewed journal article that has not been replicated.
- Several peer-reviewed journal articles from various labs, including transcripts.
- Meta-reviews of multiple peer-reviewed journal articles, including transcripts.
The higher the level of evidence the more reliable – be it for computerized cognitive training or other brain cross training methods such as neutropics, non-stop fasting or meditation.
The two latest meta-reviews of Work Memory Training – one published this year and the other written for publication – are both over. Dual N-back training is effective in improving general cognitive performance and IQ test scores.
The 2014 study paper by Jackie Au and colleagues at the University of California concluded:
“Our work demonstrates the effectiveness of a few weeks of N-back training to improve GF’s measurement performance. [fluid intelligence]. We request that future studies go beyond trying to answer this simple question of whether there is a shift and instead, try to explore the nature and extent of how these improved test scores may reflect “true” improvements in Gf that may translate into reality. . , Real-world settings. “
My grad school colleague Jason Chain – chief investigator at Temple University Neurocognition Lab, reached a similar conclusion in a meta-review of his 2014 memory training, concluding that the training “actually shows a positive transition, even to the remote transfer system” (personal correspondence).
Based on this meta-review evidence – the highest grade scientific evidence we have – we can conclude that dual n-back training is worth your time and effort investment if you want to achieve general cognitive performance. Other types of computerized cognitive training – or learning musical instruments, playing video games, or regular aerobic exercise – are of no equal benefit.
Increasing IQ Gain: Dual N-Back Optimization
In their meta-review, Jackie Au and colleagues argue that the average increase in IQ from training is a Less guess Due to sampling and testing criteria. Furthermore, they believe that the size of the impact they have reported can be magnified Optimize With specific game parameters:
- End of the program
- Increase the underlying motivation to complete the program
The authors argue for this reason:
“The results reported in this meta-analysis present a low-end estimate of the actual level of improvement that may be on the scale of N-back training. [intelligence]”
The name of the game now accurately determines the key parameters of dual n-back training that can optimize a wide shift in IQ and general cognitive performance. A similarity is growing tomatoes. If you know you can grow them, then your next concern is how to make them bigger and better – like adding different watering schedules or fertilizers or changing the rising temperature!
Intervention control and ‘second generation’ dual n-back training
A strong candidate parameter for optimizing dual n-back training that I am particularly interested in Interference control.
Intervention A technical term for Misleading information This is similar to the information needed to perform well in a game or cognitive challenge. If you are playing the N-back game, and you are at the 3-back level, a combined stimulus for N = 2 or N = 4 would be eligible as an intervention. This is shown in the figure.
Another example of intervention is found in the Strup Task. You can now try the task for yourself – moving from left to right, as soon as you can Ink color Here the word – ignore the meaning of the word (the answer to the first is ‘red’).
Since word reading is very well practiced and automated, there is a strong intervention effect in this task – you have noticed! The meaning of words captures your attention, and interferes with your ability to perform tasks. It takes concentration to control this intervention.
There is good scientific evidence for this Interference control – Ability to filter this kind of misleading information – Underlying the link between work memory and intelligence.
- Second, Claudia von Bastiana and Klaus Oberaura of the Department of Psychology at the University of Zurich observed that a game gains IQ based on memory training only in ‘supervised’ work. Supervision is a term The aspect of working memory used to control interference – Defined as “Electoral activation of restriction of relevant and irrelevant information”.
It is now built into all IQ Mindware apps by default, based on the strong possibility of interference control for IQ gain. Creating interference control is a new thing in dual n-back games, and that’s why I call it ‘second generation’ (2G) dual n-back training.
I also developed the only one with the HighIQPro app Strupe dual n-back In the market. In this game you have to keep track of the N-back match, ignoring the position of the arrows and the color of the words, ignoring their meaning. Here the image shows an example of this with n-back = 2.
Feedback from users experience of cognitive gain from Strup Dual N-Back has therefore been positive. This dual n-back variation has a great potential to optimize IQ gain. HighIQPro also offers standard dual n-back training with intervention.
In short, we can consider a similarity with sports performance.
Significant gains in sports performance are now possible – and achieving those gains depends on scientifically guided training programs. Similarly it is becoming clear that cognitive performance gains are possible and these too rely on scientifically guided training programs. Evolutionary versions of dual N-back and other forms of work memory training will be central to achieving and maintaining the highest levels of cognitive performance in the next decade.