Current Affairs

Indian Policy Practice Questions for all competitive exams

1. Consider the following:
1. Supervision, direction and management of free and fair elections
2. Preparation of voter list for all elections to Parliament, State Legislative Assembly and Office of the President and Vice-President.
3. Recognition of political parties and allotment of election symbols to political parties and individuals contesting elections.
4. Declaration of final verdict in case of electoral dispute.
Which of the above is the work of Election Commission of India?
A) 1, 2 and 3
B) 2, 3 and 4
C) 1 and 3
D) 1, 2 and 4

The "Instruments of Direction" contained in the Government of India Act, 1935 are incorporated in the Constitution of India of 1950 as follows:
A) Fundamental rights
B) The guiding principle of state policy
C) the extent of the executive power of the state
D) Conducting business of Government of India

3. In India, if a religious community / community is given the status of a national minority, is it entitled to special benefits?
1. It can establish and operate exclusive educational institutions.
2. The President of India automatically nominates a representative of the community in the Lok Sabha.
3. It could benefit from the Prime Minister's 15-point program.
Which of the above statements is correct / correct?
A) Only 1
b) Only 2 and 3
C) Only 1 and 3
D) 1, 2 and 3

4. There are millions of disabled people in India What are the benefits available to them under the law?
1. Free education up to 18 years of age in government run schools.
2. Allocation of priority land for setting up business.
3. Ramp in public buildings.
Which of the above statements is correct / correct?
A) Only 1
B) 2 and 3
C) 1 and 3
D) 1, 2 and 3

5. Consider the following statement: In India, a Metropolitan Planning Committee:
1. Formed under the provisions of the Constitution of India.
2. Prepares draft development plans for the metropolitan area.
3. The metropolitan area has sole responsibility for implementing government-sponsored schemes.
Which of the above statements is correct / correct?
A) 1 and 2
b) Only 2
C) 1 and 3
D) 1, 2 and 3

6. In the areas covered under the Panchayat (Expansion of Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996, what is the role / power of Gram Sabha?
1. Gramsabha has the power to prevent land segregation in scheduled areas.
2. Ownership of small forest products Gram Sabha.
3. Recommendation of Gram Sabha is required for issuing prospecting license or mining lease for any mineral mining in Scheduled Area.
Which of the above statements is correct / correct?
A) Only 1
b) Only 1 and 2
C) 2 and 3
D) 1, 2 and 3

7. Which of the following is the main feature (s) of Government of India Act, 1919?
1. Introduction of Dairy in the Executive Government of the Province.
2. Introduction of separate communal constituencies for Muslims.
3. Transfer of legislative powers to the provinces by the Center.
Choose the correct answer using the following codes:
A) Only 1
B) 2 and 3
C) 1 and 3
D) 1, 2 and 3

8. Which of the following provisions of the Constitution of India has an effect on education?
1. Directive policy of state policy.
2. Rural and urban local bodies.
3. Fifth Schedule.
4. Sixth Schedule.
5. Seventh Schedule.
Choose the correct answer using the following codes:
A) 1 and 2
B) 3, 4 and 5
C) 1, 2 and 5
D) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

9. In reference to the Delimitation Commission, consider the following statements:
1. The order of the Delimitation Commission cannot be challenged in a court of law.
2. When the orders of the Restrictions Commission are presented before the Lok Sabha or the State Legislative Assembly, they cannot make any change in the orders.
Which of the above statements is correct / correct?
A) Only 1
B) Only 2
C) Both 1 and 2
D) Not 1 or 2

10. Consider the following statement:
1. The Constitution of India does not define backward class.
2. Outside of Article 4 of the Constitution, the DPSP provides for quotas for the socially, economically and educationally backward classes.
Which of the following is true?
A) Only 1
B) Only 2
C) Both
D) None

11. Money bills are defined as follows:
A) Section 109
B) Section 111
C) Section 199
D) None of the above

12. Choose the correct statement regarding the Constituent Assembly?
1. The Constituent Assembly was a sovereign body.
2. In addition to the constitution-making body, the Constituent Assembly was a law-making body.
Choose the correct code:
A) Only 1
B) Only 2
C) Both
D) None

13. Consider the following Indian religious communities:
1. Sikh
2. Buddhist
3. Jain
4. Persis
Which of the above has been accorded the status of 'Minority' by the Government of India?
A) 1 and 4
B) 1, 2 and 4
C) 2, 3 and 4
D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

14. Freedom of trade, commerce and association is either implicit or explicit:
1. Section 19
2. Section 301
A) 1, 2
B) Only 1
C) Only 2
D) None

15. Who may enact a law, or approve a provision, a choice or enactment, or approve of any discrimination, if such law declares that it must be done
Therefore, in order to deal with the situation arising out of the shortage of goods in any part of the Indian subcontinent
A) Parliament
B) State Legislature
C) Both
D) None

16. Who may impose restrictions on goods imported from another State or Union Territory, any tax subject to similar products produced or manufactured in that State, therefore, however, not as
To discriminate between so many imported goods and manufactured or manufactured goods; And to impose such reasonable restrictions on freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse with or without
States required in the public interest:
A) Parliament
B) State Legislature
C) Both
D) None

17. Who can form an interstate trade commission?
A) The President
B) Parliament
C) Supreme Court
D) Parliament at the request of two or more states

18. Which of the following is considered as a constitutional amendment under Article 368?
1. Reorganization of States
2. Linguistic provisions
3. Salary of Members of Parliament
A) 1, 2, 3
B) 1, 2
C) Only 3
D) None

19. The amendment of the constitution will also require any of the following provisions
At least half of those states will be approved by the state legislature through a resolution to that effect
The legislation is passed by the legislature before it is presented to the President for approval.
1. Sections 54 and 55
2. Section 73
3. Section 162
4. Section 241
A) 1, 2, 3, 4
B) 1, 2, 3
C) 2, 3
D) 1, 4

20. The amendment of which of the following will also require the participation of the States?
1. State restructuring
2. Seventh Schedule
3. Representation of States in Parliament
A) 1, 2, 3
B) 2, 3
C) Only 3
D) None

1-a, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d, 5-a, 6-d, 7-c, 8-c, 9-c, 10-a,
11-c, 12-c, 13-d, 14-a, 15-a, 16-b, 17-b, 18-a, 19-a, 20-b

Current Affairs

Input and output gating: HighIQPro

Here's how I explained Gated dual n-back (gated DNB) innovation is an important step forward in the classic dual n-back training. Caution: Some components are quite technical. Simply read up Go to the 'Summary' section at the beginning, and then to the last Exec Summary paragraph for Basic Tech-Home.

In my dual n-back post I reviewed the evidence for this Advantages of IQ increase Of Dual N-back Training, Johns Hopkins University is closely monitoring the DNB survey published this month. Compared to other types of brain training on the market, this is 2017’s review All So far, brain training studies have concluded for N-Back:

"Practicing just 20 hours of N-back tasks improves task performance as well as other cognitive processes."

It even concludes that the benefits are not just seen with the working memory (Glue), But also Fluid intelligence (GF) - The ability to see our relationship and think abstractly:

"The effect of long-distance transfer on the measurement of fluid intelligence is small and is usually observed after N-back training."

To get a quantitative idea of ​​the effectiveness of the training, below is a diagram from another 2017 review of n-back studies. Surprisingly DNB training improves maximum performance Others n-back work. But it is Also increases IQ - Working memory (Gw) and fluid intelligence (Gf) - as well as cognitive control. (The Effect size The amount of functional memory here is equal to the effectiveness of popular antidepressants such as Prozac).

DNB Pro Dual N-Back

How we This increases the transfer effect Building on the mechanics of dual n-back? And how can we do this one Evidence based That is the way to be inspired Cognitive neuroscience?

Where is this? Gated dual n-back Comes.

My fellow cognitive neuroscience grad student from CMU - Professor Randy O'Reilly (University of Colorado,
Boulder) and Professor Todd Brewer (University of Washington) - showed a high level of knowledge Three elements Making an integrated up Vertical From the sensory input to the target-directed action (Ref1, Ref2, Ref3).


In varieties such as the standard dual n-back and quad n-back, only input gating and maintenance components are trained - but not output gating. In Gated DNB Brain Training each component is targeted separately Full vertical integration Increase IQ. Gated DNB training is fully realized in the latest HighIQPro release.

1. Input Gating

Intelligence attention begins with flexibility and focus. And when we join something useful, we open an 'input gate' through which information flows into the working memory system. For example, when you're listening to someone for instructions, you need to focus on what they're saying - not what is happening around you. The instructions have to replace what you were thinking before. This work memory UpdatingAnd the information is stored in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC).

Professor Todd Brewer showed that the input gate opens through Dopamine signals From Basal ganglia From the brain Pre-frontal cortex In the frontal lobe where the information is updated (ref).


2. Maintenance / interference control

For example listening to instructions, when your WM input gate is closed, your pre-frontal cortex retains the instructions given in your 'mental workplace' that you will use to perform certain tasks. And when you are processing these instructions in WM, you do not want it to interfere with what you have to do. By focusing you need to buffer the information you need - and that's it Interference control.


Evidence suggests relying on WM maintenance and intervention control Gamma waves Synchronization in the hippocampus of the brain - where the circuits of neurons oscillate together at about 40 Hz while storing information in our mental work (ref).

3. Output getting

All the information you keep 'online' in your 'mental workplace' may not be relevant to what you are currently trying to do. For example, you just need to follow the instructions, just one step at a time. Or you may need to use certain combinations of information in WM to make decisions, but not other combinations. This type of selection and management of workplace information for 'downstream' processing depends Output getting.


Studies have shown that WM depends on output gating, such as input gating Pre-frontal cortex Circuitry (Ref).

Output gating is not only important for intelligent action selection, but especially important, subject to input gating, for the application and learning of abstract, higher order rules (ref, ref, ref) - what is needed for proper learning and development. Skills are actually required for all these IQ-related abilities:

  • Apply complex rules
  • Decision making
  • Plan
  • Learning and generalization
  • Complex argument

Input And The new HighIQPro 2G + release features output gated dual-n-back training.

Input Getting Training

Getting all our games train input, though our latest 2g And 2G + Games further enhance input gate training, requiring flexible switching between four streams of information instead of the standard two (audio and visual) in DNB. The options for 2G and 2G + games are similar Quad dual n-back Training if you are familiar with it.

Maintenance / Intervention Control Training

Intervention control training - increasing gamma synchronization in the hippocampus - has been engineered into our brain training apps through a carefully designed sequencing of N-back stimuli. Basically, the sequence of stimuli often repeats itself before the goal is presented, and the overlap is difficult to resolve. This has been proven in brain imaging studies Interference control Underlines the relationship between fluid intelligence and working memory capacity (ref). For this reason, all the DNB games that we implement create more intervention control training than standard dual n-backs. Intervention control training is also central Strup 'n-back Games, available in 2G + game mode in our new release

Output Getting Training

Output Getting DNB

Brain training aimed at getting the prefrontal cortex output is a big step from the classic dual n-back training. We implement this in 1G, 2G and 2G + game options through OR, AND and XOR 'Logic-Getting'. With output gating, you need to modify the usual dual n-back responses depending on whether the item matches occur individually or together. It enables a simple, intuitive concept and training with it Full vertical integration - From input getting, maintenance, intelligent learning and job selection.

For those who are already familiar with DNB, the concept is shown below. At the top you must respond when there is an isolated match - that is, you will not respond when both methods match at the same time. Below you respond only when both methods match at the same time, but not when one of the two matches itself.

2G +: Vertical and horizontal integration

Combines full vertical integration with 2G + training (the most challenging gated DNB option in our new release) Horizontal integration. Horizontal integration does not work on the sensory input> action (vertical) axis, but on the data content and work variation (horizontal) axis. 2G + works with a wide variety of information content, including non-classical, strup and emotional stimuli.

Classic dual n-back train input gating on vertical axis and WM maintenance / interference control. Previous IQ Mindware apps have enhanced the classic dual N-back with greater intervention control training. Other N-back variants on the market such as Quad N-back input getting training improve. But there is no DNB game on the market train Output gettingElements of our cognitive architecture Most associated with IQ and learning. Our latest HighIQPro release exclusively trains the output gating and axis input and maintenance levels. Horizontal attachment. They also offer various task-type and data mode training in 2G + game options Horizontal integration. This is why gated dual n-back training results in greater 'distance transfers' and increased IQ.

Current Affairs

Who invented the computer?

Computer history

Charles Babbage may be considered the first to invent a computer that works automatically, and it was in 1822 that he built and built an engine capable of performing many arithmetic operations on numbers and then the results on paper. Able to print. , And I helped him with that Ada Lovelace, who was considered by many to be the first computer programmer, but Charles Babbage was not able to complete the machine completely due to lack of financial resources. In 1837, Babbage introduced the first mechanical computer with general use, and it was called the analytical engine, because the machine included a unit of calculation and logic (ALU), a flow control (English: flow control), and a memory, punch. In addition to card support (in English: punch card), Babbage also failed to complete the machine; Due to lack of financial resources, but in 1910, his youngest son Henry Babbage completed some parts of the machine; He was able to perform basic mathematical operations.

The first programmable computer

Between 1936-1938, the German Konrad Zuse invented the first programmable electromechanical computer that adopts binary calculation and is called Z1. During the same period, Alan Turing introduced the Turing machine, a device capable of printing symbols on paper in such a way that a person could perform a set of logical operations, and this machine was considered the birthplace of calculation. And computer theory in general. In 1942, Professor John Atanasoff and his student Cliff Berry invented the ABC electric computer, which was capable of performing arithmetic operations on numbers. Depending on the binary system, in addition to Boolean logic operations, this device lacked a central processing unit, which does not make it programmable.

The first electrically programmable computer

In 1943, Tommy Flowers invented the first programmable electrical computer, called the Colesus, where Flowers invented the machine to help the British army decipher encrypted messages from the German army. Between 1943 and 1944 CE, two professors at the University of Pennsylvania created the ENIAC computer, which occupied an area of ​​800 square feet and had a vacuum valve (English: vacuum tube) and this device was considered. The grandfather of computers. Digital. In 1947, the transistor was invented at the Bell Laboratory, where vacuum valves were replaced.

The first programming language

COBOL Programming Language (English: COBOL) is the first programming language created for computers, and was introduced by Grace Hopper in 1953, and was followed by the FORTRAN language the following year, which was developed by the University of Michigan.

Translation results

The first personal computer

In 1964, Douglas Engelbart introduced a model for a computer with a mouse and a graphic user interface (GUI). This was a turning point in computer usage, so that it could be used by the general public [4] In 1971, Intel Corporation announced the first microprocessor, called the Intel 4004, and in the same year, the first personal computer was released. It was called KENBAK-1, and at that time it was priced at 7 750. [3] In 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were released from Apple, the company's first computer, and it was called the Apple One (Apple 1), and in 1981. , IBM (English: IBM) released the first computer for personal use and worked with the Microsoft-DOS operating system (English: MS-DOS) and in 1985, Microsoft announced the Windows operating system (Windows. XP), and 2001. In, Apple announced Mac OS (English: Mac OS X) and in the same year, Microsoft released a copy of the Windows XP series of Windows operating systems.

Current Affairs

Making effective decisions using the Emotion Embed Choice model

Decision making: Definition

Decision making (ref) can be defined as:

Ability to choose between competitive action courses based on the relative thematic quality of their potential outcomes

Education: Definition

Ability ... to acquire or develop new, memory, knowledge or skills based on experience

Today's Mindwear: Emotion Embed Choice (EIC) model

This session's tutorial builds on the rational choice decision model we saw in Decision 1. Jane Larner's Emotion Embed Choice (EIC) Model (Ref) is supported by 30 years of research. This is because of the important role of emotions in our decision making process.

This is a very powerful, useful model if you take the time to work a little with it. This is what you have to decide first: will I set aside time to work with it and give it a spin? (!)

Emotion-embedded choice model

Using this model, you start to decide between different options.

Solid lines A, B and C. You must first evaluate the expected utilities of different models (using the expected utility theory discussed in Decision-Making 1). At this point you also need to factor in your own personality (such as risk aversion). From this you get an overall evaluation of each option and the best option is chosen (Line d)

Adds EIC model Emotions This process works in two ways:

  1. Expected emotion (line A). The 'appropriateness' of the outcome of each decision is judged by predicting one's emotional response to that outcome. This expected emotional response serves as the input of the decision process.
  2. The current emotion (Green dotted line) The second type of emotion in the EIC model consists of emotions that are felt during decision making. There are several sources for the current emotion:
    1. Decision-maker traits, such as chronic anxiety, depression or optimism (Line B ')
    2. Characteristics of alternatives such as uncertainty of possibilities lead to anxiety, or time delay which leads to anger / frustration or loss of interest (Line C ')
    3. Expected emotion (expected utility) can affect the present emotion - just as the prediction of a traumatic injury can now be feared (Line F) And it can work both ways - the current emotion from all influences can affect the expected emotion / utility of the result - such as anger can reduce the expected pain of injury (Line I)
    4. Thinking about a decision can lead to direct frustration or other emotions - such as if the options are almost equivalent or involve a difficult trade-off (Line G ')
    5. An unrelated event can also carry emotions from the weather or mood (Line H.)

And all this The current emotion It can directly affect how different options are evaluated in the decision making process (Line G) By:

  • Affecting Which dimensions Decisions we focus on. For example, fear can lead to unpredictable and uncontrollable perceptions of negative events when anger sees negative events as predictable and something that we have the ability to overcome. Here are some familiar relationships from the research:

  • Whether we use Shallow 'heuristic' processing (rapid rule-of-thumb and stereotypical) processing, or deep analytical processing With more focus on content. For example, positive moods or emotions (including anger) may be influenced by shortcut hints and stereotypes in judgment formation (such as simple titles, attraction or source skills, etc.) May focus more on impact and message content quality.
  • Which Inspirational goals Guiding us - as certain emotions trigger underlying goals, indicating what we accept as an adaptive response to a situation / problem. Anger, for example, leads to a desire to change the situation and to fight or crush against another person or obstacle. Grief increases the preference for high-risk, high-reward options, while anxiety increases the preference for low-risk, low-reward options.

Mindwear strategy

Sometimes emotion helps in decision making. But sometimes they have unwanted effects that make our decisions biased. Here are some evidence-based strategies that can be used to reduce the unwanted effects of emotions on our decision making.

1. Strategies that dampen helpless emotions

Time delay. Full-blown emotions are short-lived, physiological responses quickly fade. The problem with this is that mood swings trigger immediate responses to adaptive anxiety - so it's hard to let them pass before reaching a more thoughtful judgment or conclusion! So self-discipline and willpower are often required to make this strategy a success.

Suppression. Research indicates that this is a bad strategy, leading to many cognitive expenditures that are not conducive to decision making, such as memory loss of the onset of emotions.

Revaluation. Rearranging situations that lead to strong emotions - for example, reminding yourself after getting a bad grade that "this is just a test", adopting the 'first aid' mentality to reduce the emotional impact of seeing someone hurt, or long forgotten dreams Trimming the job as an opportunity to follow.

Triggering counteracting emotions. Grief, for example, can lead us to focus on short-term gains rather than long-term gains. But gratitude has the opposite effect. So with gratitude when you are in a situation about which you are frustrated, you can overcome the short-term (often high risk) bias that goes with the blues. Alternatively, you may be able to replace anger for fear, offsetting the effects of the decision to feel out of control and out of risk. This can be helpful in any potential threat situation.

2. Strategies that ‘bracket out’ helpless emotions

Mindfulness / meta-awareness. Most of the negative effects of our emotions happen automatically without awareness. Being more cognitively aware of their decision-making processes can help us to blame emotions at their exact sources, helping to reduce the influence of biased emotions on judgment and decision making (e.g., weathering reduces its impact on well-being judgment). Also, forcing oneself to be more 'accountable' (e.g., expecting an expert audience to justify one's decision) can also reduce the impact of biased emotions (although they can still be strongly felt).

Choose 'Default' Reconstruction This method is more consistently effective because it requires less effort! For example, if cafeterias are organized in such a way that the first meals you walk before are healthy alternatives, the 'instant spending' food choices you make due to hunger do not derail your health goals. For another example, many U.S. states require people to wait before buying a gun, which reduces any immediate effect of temporary anger. And couples have to wait 1 to 6 days to get married after getting the marriage license.

Embedded Mindware: Apps

Thinking of logical choice (solid lines A and C in EIC model) can be helped by apps like FYI decision. This allows you to (a) identify and weigh the various criteria relevant to your decision, (b) identify the different options you have, (6) evaluate each option in terms of weighted criteria to come up with an overall 'best option'. (Although the app does not factor in the probability of different results, which you should consider.)

EIC model walk-through

Let's work with an example.

Emotion-embedded choice model

We have to decide which project to commit to next month and we have two options: Project X and Project Y. We can't do both! We've just completed a project and we're proud of what we've done with it. And I want to move the speed forward.

First we identify that we reasonably consider each option in terms of benefits and costs. Benefits can come from a sense of interest in the project (how inspiring it is) or a sense of rapid progress, as well as the results of completing each project. There may be costs such as effort or stress involved, delays or failure to complete the project. It is important to imagine the expectations / predictions in the EIC model Psychological effects Advantages and costs of each option (Line A) We also have to judge the disadvantages of succeeding in what we set out to do - how likely are we to complete Project A or Project B as intended? Have we factor in all the uncertainty?

From all this information, we should be able to estimate the 'expected utility' for two options - Project A or Project B. This is the starting point for a good decision. We can choose based on this process - but the EIC model helps us go deeper and make better quality decisions.

We need to reflect on ourselves The current emotion And how they can influence our judgment and decision making process. In this case:

  1. Your personality - such as over-optimism and self-confidence - can make you recklessly overestimate your chances of success (Line B ') Knowing yourself is important here.
  2. Characteristics of options that have an immediate emotional impact on you: For example, delaying an option can lead to feelings of frustration that negatively affect your decision, especially if your motivations are directed to instant gratification right now (Line C ')
  3. We can focus too much on the expected emotion when we imagine such a project failing - which can overwhelm our decision-making process with a sense of 'fear of failure'; Or, conversely, the joy of imaginary success may favor a well-rounded verdict towards the Snap decision (Line F)
  4. Emotions of pride that still remain from the previous project Carries And gives us a more biased view of our own ability and ability to control the next project (Line H.)

After considering all this, you can judge that you have to give yourself something Time Let your current sense of pride or current positivity erode into a little more neutrality so that it can give you more objectivity about the uncertainties involved. You can try too Reframing Fear of failure otherwise: 'If it fails, it will be a valuable learning experience'. This can help one of the options become more attractive in a more logical way. You can imagine there Your decision is justified Someone, to give you a more useful isolation from the unwanted mental liver.

After all this, you must be good to go!

IQ Mindwear Core Architecture Walk-Through

Here is the EIC model in our main architecture.

  • Expanding your cognitive abilities through Gated N-Back training will help you understand and apply the rules and techniques of the EIC model.
  • Mindfulness / meta-awareness will help you to reflect on your own decision making process and identify the emotions that may influence your decision.
  • In the process of intelligent thinking: Possibility The need to visualize different outcomes and emotional reactions; Argument / Argument Needed to calculate expected utilities based on weighted cost and sum of benefits; Proof Useful for gathering information that may be relevant to your decision-making - such as 'reality verification' and asking others how realistic your options may be; And The value The thematic value of different outcomes is what you need in your judgment - the 'utility' of the consideration which will include the emotional response.
  • After working with the EIC model for a while, your decision may also benefit Incubation - Through meditation, daydreaming, confusion or sleep, you will be able to make the right decision when you are alert and focus on the subject again.

IQ Mindwear Exercise

Try working through the Emotion Embed Choice (EIC) model. You need to make an important decision, considering the potential for different outcomes and their expected costs and benefits (utility and associated emotion). But also choose all the possible psychological effects on your decision. Consider also how you can improve your decision making by using some of the mindware techniques described above. Put the IQ Mindware core architecture here as a more moderate framework for your work.

Current Affairs

From Arabia to Mars .. All you need to know about Emirates Al-Amal Probe or Hope

Cost of completion of the project: $ 200 million.

Lunch date: The probe was successfully launched on July 20, 2020, at 1:58 AM local time in the UAE.

Date of arrival: February 9, 2021.

When the probe enters the capture orbit: 7:42 pm UAE time.

During the live broadcast of the arrival of the probe: 7 pm and the broadcast will include television stations and all social media platforms.

The date of arrival of the investigation is of national importance: The arrival of the search on Mars coincides with the celebration of the fiftieth National Day of the Union Declaration.

The Hope Probe The goal is to explore Mars in order to present clear scientific reasons that help us to understand our planets, Mars and other planets in general, and to achieve the natural hope of providing a complete and clear picture of the planet's atmosphere. By studying the atmosphere of Mars, we can find out the reasons why Mars was transformed from a normal planet like ours to a barren and dry planet.

Emirati Al-Amal investigation

The Hope Probe The project is truly a window of hope on which millions of people from 56 Arab and Islamic countries stand, as the success of the project will earn the UAE a golden point in the field of scientific and research projects and is not new to the UAE as it is always useful and Interested in excellence worldwide. But the Hope Probe in particular represents the great aspirations of the state.

Al-Amal has announced the start of the search operation

It began on July 16, 2014, when His Excellency Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, President of the United Arab Emirates, and Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates, announced the scientific project to achieve great success in completing the UAE Mission. Has done, and is the fifth among the countries in the world to complete a country-owned qualitative scientific program to explore Mars and the first in the Arab world to reach Mars, called the Red Planet.

Probe work stage from launch to arrival

The launch of the probe includes 6 main stages:

The probe is being launched.

Initial operation.

On space.

Entering a capture orbit.

Going into scientific orbit.

The scientific level includes research, exploration and data transmission.

The Hope Probe successfully completed the first three stages in July last year and was launched from the Tanegashima Center in Japan on an H2A missile. , The probe will collect and send all the detailed information to Mars through the scientific devices loaded with it.

The device used to achieve the scientific purpose of the Al-Amal probe

The probe carries 3 innovative scientific instruments on board to give a detailed picture of the climate of Mars and the different layers of its atmosphere, which gives our society a deeper understanding of the special processes in the atmosphere.

The United Arab Emirates has joined the ranks of the world's space exploration

At each stage of the launch it needs to be handled with precision, professionalism and efficiency by the working team and before reaching the final stage, all the sub-instruments on the probe board will be re-examined and tested to ensure complete accuracy in trying to pass all stages without errors.

To successfully complete the mission, half of the fuel in the probe tank will be burned to allow it to enter the capture duct. This burning process will continue for about 27 minutes to reduce the speed from 121,000 to 18,000 km / h. The probe is also designed to guide itself at this stage due to its inability to communicate immediately.

Since the launch of Probe Idea in 2014, the project has faced challenges, the most prominent of which were the Corona epidemic and the mission to relocate it from Dubai to Japan, where it was based and only accepted. 6 years of work, while other missions took 10-12 years to reach Mars, should be handed over to the task force and the people in charge of this distinguished scientific project.

If the UAE manages to reach the surface of the Red Planet, the UAE will be the first in the world and the fifth in the world, and it will enter the adult space club through its wide door.

Emirati Al-Amal investigation

What is the difference between launching the UAE Arab Hope Probe?

There are about 1000 gigabytes of unprecedented data and new data that the probe will collect on the red planet, and it will be stored securely in the UAE's scientific data center, and the data will be indexed and analyzed by an elite group of members. Scientific team, which will be available to humanity for the first time. The UAE is willing to share it for free with the scientific community interested in everything related to the glam of Mars as an indication of its ability to serve human knowledge.

Another feature that sets the Emirates Al-Amal probe apart from other scientific projects in many countries to try to reach Mars is that the project was completed at half the normal cost of similar projects, as we mentioned at the outset. 200 200 million, and is considered one of the least expensive projects in the world thanks to the efforts of the scientific, research and engineering cadres of the ancient United Arab Emirates.

Which is the most dangerous stage of the journey?

The Hope Probe space mission has brought a mixture of confidence and anticipation among those in charge and its observers about the possibility of successfully entering orbit in the light of an Emirates spacecraft towards Mars.

The most important phase of the mission, which was launched in July 2020, is the phase of entering the capture orbit and it lasts 27 minutes which is called blind minute. Failure to perform the strategy could result in the spacecraft failing to enter Mars orbit, or it could lead to a collision with the planet, as happened in the 1999 NASA space mission "Mars Climate Orbiter".

This phase has been extensively trained, designed and tested, but the use of a propulsion engine at full power for a continuous 27-minute period is an unprecedented process in the history of space missions, as it will consume half the fuel carried by the probe. Slow down its thrust at a high speed, currently about 121,000 km / h.

Current Affairs

List of Miss World winners (1951-2017)

Current General Knowledge Today: Miss World Winners List (1951-2017)

List of Miss World winners (1951-2017)

Miss World 1951 - Kiki Hackonson, Sweden
Miss World 1952 - May Louis Flodin, Sweden
Miss World 1953 - Dennis Pereira, France
Miss World 1954 - Antigone Costanda, Egypt
Miss World 1955 - Carmen Jubilaga, Venezuela
Miss World 1956 - Petra Schuermann, Germany

Miss World 1957 - Marita Lindahall, Finland
Miss World 1958 - Penelope Koelen, South Africa
Miss World 1959 - Corinne Rotschaffer, Holland
Miss World 1960 - Norma Capagli, Argentina
Miss World 1961 - Rosemary Frankland, United Kingdom
Miss World 1962 - Catherine Lauderdale, Holland
Miss World 1963 - Carol Crawford, Jamaica
Miss World 1964 - Anne Sydney, United Kingdom
Miss World 1965 - Leslie Langley, United Kingdom
Miss World 1966 - Rita Faria, India
Miss World 1967 - Madeleine Hartog Bell, Peru

Miss World 1969 - Eva River Stear, Austria
Miss World 1970 - Jennifer Houston, Grenada
Miss World 1971 - Lucia Petrale, Brazil
Miss World 1972 - Bellina Green, Australia
Miss World 1973 - Marjorie Wallace, USA
Miss World 1974 - Annelin Creel, South Africa
Miss World 1975 - Vinelia Merced, Puerto Rico
Miss World 1976 - Cindy Breakspier, Jamaica
Miss World 1977 - Mary Stevin, Sweden
Miss World 1978 - Silvana Suarez, Argentina
Miss World 1979 - Gina Swainson, Bermuda
Miss World 1980 - Kimberly Santos, Guam
Miss World 1981 - Palin Leone, Venezuela
Miss World 1982 - Mariasella LeBron, Dominican Republic
Miss World 1983 - Sarah Jane Hat, UK
Miss World 1984 - Astrid Herrera, Venezuela
Miss World 1985 - Hofi Karlsdottir, Iceland
Miss World 1986 - Gisele Larande, Trinidad
Miss World 1987 - Ulla Wigerstorfer, Austria
Miss World 1988 - Linda Petursdotir, Iceland
Miss World 1989 - Andeta Kreglika, Poland
Miss World 1990 - Gina Marie Tolson, USA
Miss World 1991 - Ninebeth Jimenez, Venezuela
Miss World 1992 - Julia Korotkina, Russia
Miss World 1993 - Lisa Hanna, Jamaica
Miss World 1994 - Aishwarya Rai, India
Miss World 1995 - Jacqueline Aquilera, Venezuela
Miss World 1996 - Irene Skliva, Greece
Miss World 1997 - Diana Hayden, India
Miss World 1998 - Leno's Abergil, Israel
Miss World 1999 - Yukta Mookhey, India
Miss World 2000 - Priyanka Chopra, India
Miss World 2001 - Ibiagbanidokibubo Essenite Darego - Nigeria
Miss World 2002 - Azra Akin - Turkey
Miss World 2003 - Rozana Davidson, Ireland
Miss World 2004 - Maria Julia Mantilla Garcia, Peru
Miss World 2005 - Unnur Birna Vilhajalamsadottir, Iceland
Miss World 2006 - Tatana Kucharova, Czech Republic
Miss World 2007 - Zhang Zhi Li, China Public Relations
Miss World 2008 - Kesnia Sukhinova, Russia
Miss World 2009 - Kayan Aldorino, Gibraltar
Miss World 2010 - Alexandria Mills, USA
Miss World 2011 - Ivian Sarcos, Venezuela
Miss World 2012 - Wen Xia Yu, China Public Relations
Miss World 2013 - Megan Young, Philippines
Miss World 2014 - Rollen Strauss, South Africa
Miss World 2015 - Mirea Lalaguna Rayo, Spain
Miss World 2016 - Stephanie Del Valle, Puerto Rico
Miss World 2017 - Manushi Chhillar, India
Current Affairs

IQ Mindware Architecture Model

What is 'mindware'?

The word 'Mindwear‘Perkins made the first in his book Outsmarting IQ: The emerging science of learning intelligence. Mindware refers to Rules, knowledge and strategies that help in decision making and problem solving. Mindwear is a term used to describe the knowledge you acquire in order to intelligently deal with target situations: your Cognitive toolkit.

There are three types of mindwear: architecture, model and method. Architecture is a broad, extensive structure; Models are helpful theories or schemes, and methods are methods, rules, heuristics, techniques and much more, which help in data processing.

Exercise on HighIQPro Tutorial Mindware will create stores that you can use for a variety of cognitive ranges Function - For strategizing, problem solving, decision making, understanding etc.

Evidence based Mindware architecture The figure below shows what you can learn in the HighIQPro tutorials. This is the most comprehensive, commonly applied, mindwear model that you will use constantly while you build your cognitive toolkit to be smart. This is called the IQ Mindware Architecture Model (IQMA Model).

Benefits of increasing intelligence Joint development (1) Meta-awareness / Minefulness, (2) Mindware strategy and (3) Cognitive ability. At the heart of this process is the ability to imagine PossibilityThoughts Logically (Using reason), being Proof- Bound (truth tracking), and know how Evaluation And will be managed by The value And preferences. All this is shown in the above triad.

This is above Aware Works synergistically with different techniques for triad Ignorance Incubation - Lower lower circle. You need incubation to mature Insights For our understanding insights, for creative problem solving, for intuitive decision making.

"Intuition: knowing or learning something directly without conscious use of reasoning; understanding immediately."

Mindfulness and meta-awareness

This is an important aspect of Mindwear architecture. You have to be Aware When the opportunity arises to practice a cognitive skill - by becoming aware of your own mental process. This Meta-awareness. Most of what we do is going on Auto pilotAnd it can prevent us from learning bad habits and applying useful mindwear.

In addition to self-awareness, we can also benefit from injustice Mindfulness Our mental processes and behaviors - for more mental intelligence and important ability to learn Wrong And Failure. Instead of being defensive through sensitive arrogance, mindfulness can help us to be more objective about our abilities and help us to deal with situations that we can avoid for fear of negative judgment or self-condemnation.

See this article for a general introduction to meta-awareness and mindfulness.

Cognitive Ability (Gated Dual N-Back Training)

Your general Knowledge based Power Includes:

  • The Bandwidth The amount of information you can process while thinking about something through 'offline'.
  • The Skills Establish your problem solving, decision making, comprehension etc.
  • Your power Ignore Think of problems in your mind through automated, responsive processes and 'offline'.
  • Your power Control your attention.

We know from scientific evidence HighIQPro's gated dual n-back training enhances cognitive ability.

Current Affairs

Old-fashioned apps and games on iPhone and Android versions

Childhood games have left a great impression and a moral value that continues to affect the soul in our days. For generations of the eighties and nineties, Atari games and later common mobile phone and home computer games were etched in memory, as opposed to new games that faded for a period of time and then gradually disappeared and were forgotten, in praise of its dedication. Fans of the game, its companies have reissued copies that mimic everything old compatible with smartphones, so we'll give you a nostalgia boost through the most famous childhood games we've had the most fun time playing:

The Soviet icon "Tetris" has welcomed its players on Nintendo devices since 1988, a game that was at the top of all gaming platforms in the world in the hands of its Soviet programmer Alexei Pazitanov and gained worldwide popularity in the eighties and nineties. The best-selling game of history of the last century, and with its graphics, is simple and their rules are clear, just rotate the falling puzzle pieces to fit each other to create solid lines that later disappear.

"Tetris" continues to fascinate and fascinate players today, but its presence on smartphones does not mean a revival of the old version, but a new version with attractive colors and styles compatible with today's technology while preserving the original spirit of the game.

Pac-Man game

The game was first released on arcade devices in 1980, so "Pacman" is a game that makes us feel nostalgic for the beautiful times, because the game, with its simplicity, has been able to keep its fans to this day. Thanks to its innovative design, Pac-Man had a bigger impact. In the popular culture of any other video game, which persuaded Android and iPhone developers to release a similar version of the old version with the same gameplay.

Take control of the form available in the game and eat all the points that get in your way and stay away from ghosts as they will cause you harm and it is worth noting that there are many versions of the Pacman game that have updates and new developments. To revive Ms.Pac-Man, but the first copy of the original is still on request.

Apple Store Best iPhone Apps and Games 2020The best Google Play Games 2020

Snake game

One of the most popular games of the eighties and nineties, which all Nokia device owners were addicted to in those days, was Snake because of our attachment to the concept of mobile games, we thought the game was easy when we started playing, The same big hurdle becomes even more difficult and the adrenaline starts to rise and based on the respect of this game and its huge fans, the updated versions have been improved that imitate the old original game. The numbers that enable you to control and many Snake games have been created and updated on Android as well as the original, we keep the most famous for you.

Apple Store Best iPhone Apps and Games 2020The best Google Play Games 2020

Full shield! Pinball: Space Cadet

Of course, I remembered it, didn't I? No, you probably heard the opening music as soon as you saw the picture, one of the most famous old games we've played in front of the computer screen for a long time, but the information you don't know about this game is that Pinball is just a promotional version and a big game. The part so that there are more tables 7 , But the marketing version became popular when the original full version remained unknown.

And when you download this game now, you will have two options: the first is to download the original version only for Android devices, which gives you a notification for which you must agree to access data and storage space, and the second option is a Download the version which is very similar to the well-known table and avoids the lack of reliability of the previous version. For safety, comfort and fun while playing we have provided free reliable links for you to reach the highest level of fun and nostalgia for the past.

Apple Store Best iPhone Apps and Games 2020The best Google Play Games 2020

Minesweeper game

If you are a Windows user you must have spent a lot of time playing Minesweeper, are you from a team that already knows how to play it or from a team that thinks it is a game of luck and calls on God before opening the block? The game is beautiful for everyone who has learned to play it, and it is not complicated by rumors. The rules are simple. The number of blocks indicates the number of mines next to it and you must identify all suspicious mines.

Minesweeper is one of the oldest games of all time, although it was launched on Windows in 1990, but its history goes back to the sixties. Despite all this, it is still in demand by many, so download one of the best copies and get closer to the original.

Apple Store Best iPhone Apps and Games 2020The best Google Play Games 2020

Crazy taxi game

One of the most famous historical arcade games that still lingers in the minds of many of the nineties generation, as it was first released in 1999, before the famous GTA series took its lead, and Crazy Taxi was primarily intended for X-Play devices and then for computers. The version begins. Its popularity continued to grow and thrive during that time, so the sequels Crazy Taxi 2 and Crazy Taxi 3 came out on Dreamcast and Xbox in 2001 and 2002, respectively, a beautiful, entertaining game that takes you back in time to the music of the original game. The simplicity of its graphics, download it and take your taxi around the city streets to the insane crowds and make money, available online on Android and Apple devices.

Apple Store Best iPhone Apps and Games 2020The best Google Play Games 2020
Current Affairs

Current General Knowledge Today: Padma Award 2018

Winners of Padma Bhushan Award 2018:

No order

1.Shri IlayarajaArt-musicTamil Nadu
2.Shri Golam Mostafa KhanArt-musicMaharashtra
3.Sri Parameshwaran ParameshwaranLiterature and educationKerala

Padma Bhushan Award 2018 Winners:
The Padma Bhushan is the third highest civilian award of the Republic of India (after the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Bhushan). Padma Bhushan is awarded for high quality services.
No orderNameFieldState
4.Shri Pankaj AdvaniSports-billiards / snookerKarnataka
5.Mr. Philip Mar Mar ChrysostomOther - SpiritualismKerala
6.Shri Mahendra Singh DhoniSports-cricketJharkhand
7.Mr. Alexander Kadakin (Foreigner / Posthumous)Public AffairsRussia
8.Sri Ramachandran NagaswamyOther - ArcheologyTamil Nadu
9.Shri Ved Prakash Nanda (OCI)Literature and educationAmerica
10.Sri Lakshman PaiArt-paintingGoa
11.Shri Arvind ParikhArt-musicMaharashtra
12.Microsoft. Sharda SinhaArt-musicBihar

Winners of Padma Shri Award 2018:
Padma Shri (also Padma Shri) is the fourth highest civilian award of the Republic of India (after Bharat Ratna, Padma Vibhushan and Padma Bhushan). Padma Shri is awarded for outstanding service in any field.
No orderNameField


13.Sri Abhay Banga (Duo)MedicineMaharashtra
Mrs. Rani Bang (Duo)MedicineMaharashtra
14.Shri Damodar Ganesh BapatSocial workChhattisgarh
15Shri Prafulla Govinda BaruaLiterature and education-journalismAssam
16.Shri Mohan Swarup BhatiaArt-folk musicUttar Pradesh
17.Shri Sudhanshu BiswasSocial work

West Bengal

18.Microsoft. Saikhom Mirabai ChanuSport-weightliftingManipur
19.Shri Pandit Shyamlal ChaturvediLiterature and education-journalismChhattisgarh
20Mr. Jose Ma Joey Concepcion III (Foreign)Trade and industryPhilippines
21.Microsoft. Lampoklakpam subadani deviArt-weavingManipur
22.Shri Somdev DevvarmanSport-tennis


23.Mr. Yeshi DhodenMedicineHimachal Pradesh
24.Shri Arup Kumar DuttaLiterature and educationAssam
25Shri Doddarange GowdaArt-lyricsKarnataka
26.Shri Arvind GuptaLiterature and educationMaharashtra
27.Shri Digambar HansadaLiterature and educationJharkhand
28.Shri Ramli Bin Ibrahim (Foreigner)Art-danceMalaysia
29Shri Anwar Jalalpuri (posthumous)Literature and educationUttar Pradesh
30Mr. Piang Temjen JamirLiterature and educationNagaland
31.Ms. Sitavva JoddatiSocial workKarnataka
32.Mrs. Malati JoshiLiterature and educationMadhya Pradesh
33.Shri Manoj JoshiArt-actingMaharashtra
34.Shri Rameshwarlal KabraTrade and industryMaharashtra
35.Shri Pran Kishore KaulArtJammu and Kashmir
36.Mr. Baunlap Keokangna (Foreign)Other - ArchitectureLaos
37.Mr. Vijay KichluArt-musicWest Bengal
38.Mr. Tommy Koh (Foreigner)Public AffairsSingapore
39.Mrs. LaxmikuttyMedicine-TraditionalKerala
40.Microsoft. Jayshree Goswami MahantaLiterature and educationAssam
41.Shri Narayan Das MaharajOther - SpiritualismRajasthan
42.Shri Prabhakar MaharanaArt-sculptureOrissa
43.Mr. Hoon Many (Foreign)Public AffairsCambodia
44.Microsoft. Nouf Marwai (foreign)Other- YogaSaudi Arabia
45.Mr. Xavier Lal MehtaLiterature and education-journalismGujarat
46.Sri Krishna Bihari MishraLiterature and educationWest Bengal
47.Mr. Shishir Purushottam MishraArt-cinemaMaharashtra
48.Subhashini MistrySocial workWest Bengal
49Mr. Tomio Mizokami (foreign)Literature and educationJapan
50.Shri Somdet Fra Maha Muniyong (Foreign)Other - SpiritualismThailand
51.Shri Keshab Rao MusalgaonkarLiterature and educationMadhya Pradesh
52.Dr. Thant Mint - U (Foreign)Public AffairsMyanmar
53.Microsoft. V NanammalOther - AdditionTamil Nadu
54.Microsoft. Sulagitti NarasammaSocial workKarnataka
55.Microsoft. Vijayalakshmi NavanithakrishnanArt-folk musicTamil Nadu
56.Mr. I. Newman Nuarta (Foreign)Art-SculptureIndonesia
57.Shri Malay Haji Abdullah Bin Malay Haji Usman (Foreign)Social workBrunei Darussalam
58.Shri Govardhan PanikaArt-weavingOrissa
59.Shri Bhabani Charan PattanaikPublic AffairsOrissa
60.Mr. Murlikant PetkarSport-swimmingMaharashtra
61.Mr. Habibullah Rajabov (Foreign)Literature and educationTajikistan
62.Shri MR RajagopalMedicine-Palliative CareKerala
63.Shri Sampat Ramteke (posthumous)Social workMaharashtra
64.Shri Chandra Shekhar RathLiterature and educationOrissa
65.Shri SS RathoreCivil serviceGujarat
66.Shri Amitabh RoyScience and engineeringWest Bengal
67.Mr. Sanduk Ruit (Foreigner)Medicine-OphthalmologyNepal
68.Shri R. SatyanarayanaArt-musicKarnataka
69Shri Pankaj M ShahMedicine-OncologyGujarat
70.Shri Bhajju ShyamArt-paintingMadhya Pradesh
71.Shri Maharao Raghubir SinghLiterature and educationRajasthan
72.Sri Kidambi SrikantaSports BadmintonAndhra Pradesh
73.Mr. Ibrahim SutarArt-musicKarnataka
74.Shri Siddheshwar SwamijiOther - SpiritualismKarnataka
75.Microsoft. Lentina ao thakkarSocial workNagaland
76.Shri Vikram Chandra TagoreScience and engineeringUttarakhand
77.Sri Rudrapattanam Narayanswamy Tharnathan (duo)Art-musicKarnataka
Sri Rudrapattanam Narayanswamy Thagrajan (Duo)Art-musicKarnataka
78.Mr. Nguyen Tien Thien (Foreigner)Other - SpiritualismVietnam
79.Shri Bhagirath Prasad TripathiLiterature and educationUttar Pradesh
80Shri Rajagopalan BasudevanScience and engineeringTamil Nadu
81.Shri Manas Bihari VermaScience and engineeringBihar
82.Gangadhar Vithobaji in Sri PantawaneLiterature and educationMaharashtra
83.Mr. Romulus WhitakerOther-wildlife conservationTamil Nadu
84.Shri Baba YogendraArtMadhya Pradesh
85.Mr. A. ZakiaLiterature and educationMizoram

The Padma Awards are announced every year on the occasion of Republic Day. The awards are presented by the President of India in a formal ceremony which is usually held at the Rashtrapati Bhavan around March / April every year.
Current Affairs

You only need 4 muscle-building exercises at home!

When it comes to simplifying things; The old adage "less is better" comes to mind, but people of all genders and impressions exaggerate the complexities. They think that if they add more exercise or complicate their daily exercise program, they will get better results. But stop for a moment and simply look, you only need 4 muscle building exercises at home.

Highlighted above

Push-up exercise, or as it is called "push-up", is the ideal exercise to build and strengthen the upper body. It is a complex exercise that targets the muscles of the chest, shoulders, back, abdomen, triceps and even the legs.

The advantage of push-ups

The development of upper extremity muscles that play an important role in push-ups, such as the shoulder muscles, the chest muscles, the bilateral and triceps muscles in the arms, and the spinal muscles. Abdominal muscles are used to keep the body strong during push-up exercises, they are straight and transverse abdominal muscles, because there are many joints in the body that need to be kept stable, so the exercise has been described as a composite exercise.

In our daily lives we often have to push and push things like doors and shopping carts, so the muscle fitness that you build as you do pushups will serve you well. Push-ups are also considered a measure of general fitness, allowing you to evaluate whether you need to put more effort into keeping your body in an acceptable position.

An error occurred while doing push-ups

- Relax the body in the middle part of the body, which is the abdomen

- Excessive neck raising or relaxation.

- Keep hands in an upright position during exercise.

- Movement limited.


It can be said that squatting is one of the best exercises to build the lower part of the body and add strength to the legs, as this exercise employs several muscles and joints at the same time, as it requires constant practice as well as following instructions to master it. Safely

The benefits of squat exercises

Squat exercises give strength and endurance as well as build lower body muscles. The heart is also involved in this stage, which improves strength and stability in the upper body. Many world-class athletes use squat exercises as a basis for their weight-loss programs.

The main muscles involved in this exercise are thigh muscles (anterior part) and gluteal muscles (buttocks) and also the back muscles, transverse abdomen, gluteus maximus, gluteus minor, adductor, soleus muscle, secondary role of calf. Muscles, and hamstrings.

This exercise can vary greatly, as older and older people can do half-squat, aerobic and short. This is especially beneficial for women who write overweight, but need to learn how to apply it safely so that you do not get injured or hurt.

Mistakes made while doing squat exercises

- Insufficient experience to exercise.

- Bending of the spine.

- Do not touch the ground during exercise.

Pull up

Pull-up exercises, or pull-ups, are one of the best exercises for upper body and back formation. This requires holding an iron rod in the hand, then repeatedly lifting and lowering the body. Pull-up exercises are one of the hardest exercises that can be done at home because it requires physical fitness and strength in the arm and back muscles, so it can be a barrier for beginners.

The advantage of a pull up exercise

The pull-up exercise primarily targets the broad and large back muscles, located on the back of your arm, but also includes and manages most chest muscles, upper back and shoulders, and helps ensure abdominal muscles stability. Of the body while exercising

Errors performed while performing a pull-up exercise

- Speed ​​up or slow down while exercising.

- Excessively open hands.

- Less and less movement.

- Removal of excess elbows from the body.

- Swing during exercise.


The dips exercise or diving exercise is one of the best exercises for developing the muscles of the chest, shoulders and triceps. The reason for this nomenclature is the way it is implemented, since a person bends his arms at two 90-degree angles, dipping or dipping his body between two parallel bars, and continues to bend up and down with his legs bent until he feels tired. .

Dips exercise poses a big challenge if you suffer from weakness in the upper part of the body, especially in the arms, because the whole weight of the body is placed on the shoulders. Since you must start this exercise a normal and limited number of times in the first period to avoid any damage to muscles and joints.

The Benefits of Deep Exercise

Diving exercises contribute to strengthening the triceps muscles of the back arm, shoulder muscles and upper pectoral muscles. The primary function of the triceps muscle in the arm is to lift the body and maintain body balance, and this is what we need during many daily activities.

Mistakes have been made while exercising dips

- Turn your back.

- Shoulders are raised and tilted too far forward.

- Tilt the body forward while exercising.