Computer history

Charles Babbage may be considered the first to invent a computer that works automatically, and it was in 1822 that he built and built an engine capable of performing many arithmetic operations on numbers and then the results on paper. Able to print. , And I helped him with that Ada Lovelace, who was considered by many to be the first computer programmer, but Charles Babbage was not able to complete the machine completely due to lack of financial resources. In 1837, Babbage introduced the first mechanical computer with general use, and it was called the analytical engine, because the machine included a unit of calculation and logic (ALU), a flow control (English: flow control), and a memory, punch. In addition to card support (in English: punch card), Babbage also failed to complete the machine; Due to lack of financial resources, but in 1910, his youngest son Henry Babbage completed some parts of the machine; He was able to perform basic mathematical operations.

The first programmable computer

Between 1936-1938, the German Konrad Zuse invented the first programmable electromechanical computer that adopts binary calculation and is called Z1. During the same period, Alan Turing introduced the Turing machine, a device capable of printing symbols on paper in such a way that a person could perform a set of logical operations, and this machine was considered the birthplace of calculation. And computer theory in general. In 1942, Professor John Atanasoff and his student Cliff Berry invented the ABC electric computer, which was capable of performing arithmetic operations on numbers. Depending on the binary system, in addition to Boolean logic operations, this device lacked a central processing unit, which does not make it programmable.

The first electrically programmable computer

In 1943, Tommy Flowers invented the first programmable electrical computer, called the Colesus, where Flowers invented the machine to help the British army decipher encrypted messages from the German army. Between 1943 and 1944 CE, two professors at the University of Pennsylvania created the ENIAC computer, which occupied an area of ​​800 square feet and had a vacuum valve (English: vacuum tube) and this device was considered. The grandfather of computers. Digital. In 1947, the transistor was invented at the Bell Laboratory, where vacuum valves were replaced.

The first programming language

COBOL Programming Language (English: COBOL) is the first programming language created for computers, and was introduced by Grace Hopper in 1953, and was followed by the FORTRAN language the following year, which was developed by the University of Michigan.

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The first personal computer

In 1964, Douglas Engelbart introduced a model for a computer with a mouse and a graphic user interface (GUI). This was a turning point in computer usage, so that it could be used by the general public [4] In 1971, Intel Corporation announced the first microprocessor, called the Intel 4004, and in the same year, the first personal computer was released. It was called KENBAK-1, and at that time it was priced at 7 750. [3] In 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were released from Apple, the company’s first computer, and it was called the Apple One (Apple 1), and in 1981. , IBM (English: IBM) released the first computer for personal use and worked with the Microsoft-DOS operating system (English: MS-DOS) and in 1985, Microsoft announced the Windows operating system (Windows. XP), and 2001. In, Apple announced Mac OS (English: Mac OS X) and in the same year, Microsoft released a copy of the Windows XP series of Windows operating systems.

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